Anchoring to Concrete, Masonry and Steel

Planning of Anchors for Ashlar, Band, Column and Pilaster Facing

Planning of Anchors for Ashlar, Band, Column and Pilaster Facings

Use of the proper type and the correct quantity of anchors to fit the design and size of the stone will help cut cost of both manufacturing and setting of the stone. Anchors projecting from the backs of stones often cause casting problems. Inserts are cast in the backs of stones instead of projecting bolts. Thin stones 2″ to 2 1/2″ thick, cast with pockets for strap anchors to lap and tie the stones back to the wall. Thin walls cause a casting problem and tend to fracture after stones are set.

Planning the proper anchor for simplicity when setting stones is an important time factor. Bolt anchors that are located in hard to reach areas, or using an anchor requiring two different trades for setting, may be simplified by using a different type anchor.

The cost of anchors can be reduced by selecting the proper anchor. Sometimes two anchors are shown where one can be used to do the same job. Various type anchors and how they are used may be found on all detailed pages.
Weight of Cast Stone is approximately 150 lbs per cubic foot.

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Column Facings and Pier Stones

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Ashlar Facing Anchors

Ashlar Facing Anchors

Ashlar facing panels may be anchored to the structure in a variety of ways as shown below. The most simple anchor is the strap anchor shown below the coping in the upper left detail. The use of the J-bolt is shown in several applications. This provides a positive connection and allows careful positioning of the stone by adjusting the nut on the threaded end. The J-bolt as a support for the soffit panel has been used quite successfully and is relatively easy to install.

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Anchoring of Ashlar Above Windows

Anchoring of Ashlar Above Windows

Three different methods for anchoring the bottoms of large ashlar pieces resting on continuous shelf angles are shown here.
Where block backing occurs, two hooks can be cast near bottoms of each stone and tied to back up wall with straps.

With concrete backing, 1/2″ square bars or #3 reinforcing bars can be welded to the angle centered at each joint. Where more bars are required with very long stones-continuous slots can be cast in the concrete beams to receive dovetailed strap anchors with dowel, detailed at the planning section, which will occur at each vertical joint. Dowel holes will be provided at the ends of stones to receive this anchor.

When clearance behind the angle allows lapping an anchor over the back of the angle, dowels and bent rods may be used as detailed.

Where soffits are required, a fourth method using inserts cast in fascia stones may be used. Click here to refer to soffit details.

In cases where steel stud construction is to be used, these details can be modified as explained by clicking here.

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Anchor Hooks, Lifting Hooks and Inserts

Anchor Hooks, Lifting Hooks and Inserts

When the surrounding condition or the location of the anchor does not allow using the standard anchor slot or dowel hole the following may be used:
With cast stone, wire hooks may be cast in the stone and a strap or a bent rod may be tied to this for anchoring the stone.

Hooks are also cast in heavy stones for lifting. Where bolts are required for anchoring stone to steel, threading inserts are cast in the stone and tied with bolts to the steel frame. Mullions are fastened to the wall with clip angles as detailed. Sometimes thin stones (approximately 2″) are detailed with anchors that cannot be used. If pockets are provided for these anchors the remaining portion of the stone would be too thin and would fracture. With thin ashlar it is best to use dowels fitting a 1/2″ diameter hole or have wire hooks cast in the stone for tying anchors to the hook and back to the wall.

Click here to refer to different types of inserts.

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Soffit Stones

Soffit Stones

Three different types anchoring methods are used for hanging soffit stones: #1 – Non-Corrosive wire hooks cast in stone. #2 – Dowel with Eye or J-Bolts at joints. #3 – Threaded inserts cast in the stone.

Soffits are reinforced with reinforcing rods for a safe stone. Size of rods are as specified by the architect. Rule of thumb for reinforcing is 1/4 of 1% of cross section area.

The design of the steel frames and their position in relation to center line of joints in the soffit stones often dictate which type of anchoring is to be used. If steel angles are not over joints, dowels and bolts cannot be used as detailed. All anchors are to be non-corrosive. Refer to Specification Section.

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Cornice Details

Cornice Details

The following are details of cornice and fascia with different anchoring shown for tying stones to masonry and steel.

Bolts and plates are used to anchor Cornice Stones with heavy projections. Pockets are provided at joints to receive this anchor.

When designing profiles for Cast Stone, keep in mind that cost is determined by the amount of repetition achievable from the mould.

So long as a sufficient quantity of stone is required, the complexity of the profile will have a minimal effect on the cost of Cast Stone per lineal foot.

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